Frank Lucas Funeral NEWARK, NJ - JUNE 11: (EDITORS NOTE: Image depicts death.) The Pforzen buckle inscription, dating to about the same period as the casket, also makes reference to the couple Egil and Olrun (Áigil andi Áilrun). Austin Simmons (2010) parses the frame inscription into the following segments: This he translates, "The idol sits far off on the dire hill, suffers abasement in sorrow and heart-rage as the den of pain had ordained for it." The casket's carved scenes draw on Roman, Jewish, Christian, and Germanic traditions and are accompanied by commentaries mainly in the runic alphabet (futhorc), in Old English and (briefly) Latin. Hother wounds Balder, who dies three days later and is buried in a mound.  There are other inscriptions, "tituli" identifying some figures that are not detailed below and appear within the image field. Now she is his beautiful sigwif, the hero's benevolent, even loving companion, who revives him with a draught from that chalice and takes him to Valhalla. A monastic origin is generally accepted for the casket, which was perhaps made for presentation to an important secular figure, and Wilfrid's foundation at Ripon has been specifically suggested. The human figures, at least, form a composition very comparable to those in other depictions of the period. Date Created. Material: Whale's bone In the centre a standing animal, usually seen as a horse, faces a figure, holding a stick or sword, who stands over something defined by a curved line. Howlett identifies the three figures at the right with the three wood maidens (who may be the three Norns), and the shrouded man within the central mound with Balder. On the right are three figures. Measurements from British Museum Collections Database webpage. "to sit beside the horse-block outside the gates of the court for seven years, offering to carry visitors up to the palace on her back, like a beast of burden.... Rhiannon's horse-imagery and her bounty have led scholars to equate her with the Celtic horse-goddess Epona.". 21 in Jane Hawkes and Susan Mills, eds., Osborn, Marijane. The cryptic runes on this panel may be intended to invoke the mysterious writing that appeared on the palace wall during these events. ", Usually her hos sitæþ is read, "here sits the horse".  It is named after a former owner, Sir Augustus Wollaston Franks, who gave it to the British Museum. Translation of H.A. "The Seventy-Two Gentiles and the Theme of the Franks Casket.". 1850; Jean Baptiste Joseph Barrois (d. 1855), 1850s; Augustus Wollaston Franks, 1858; The British Museum, London, 1867, by gift, Home » Relics & Reliquaries » Ritual and Performance, fisc flodu ahof on fergenberig warÞ gasric grorn ÞÆr he on greot giswom hronÆsban, her fegtaÞ titus end giuÞeasu hic fugiant hierusalim afitatores, romwalus ond reumwalus twoegen gibroÞÆr afoeddÆ hiÆ wylif in romÆcÆstri oÞlÆ unneg, her hos sitiÞ on harmberga, agl. She interprets the three figures to the right as Guthrun being led away from his tomb by his slayers Gunnar and Hogne, and the female figure before Grani as the Norn-goddess Urd, who passes judgement on the dead. The enigmatic right panel is a wilderness scene identified by an encoded inscription that relates how Hos suffers at the hands of Ertae. Bouman suggests that the female mourner could then be Hengist's famous daughter Renwein. 7th-8th century. This, the Bargello panel, has produced the most divergent readings of both text and images, and no reading of either has achieved general acceptance. The lid shows a scene of an archer, labelled ᚫᚷᛁᛚᛁ or Ægili, single-handedly defending a fortress against a troop of attackers, who from their larger size may be giants. It served as a reliquary but was probably made to hold a holy text such as a Gospel, or the Psalms, and this may have been the original purpose of the Franks Casket. Thomas A. Bredehoft, 'Three New Cryptic Runes on the Franks Casket'. Press, 1926, as cited by Clark (1930, p. 339). Romulus and Remus, two brothers, a she-wolf nourished them in Rome, far from their native land. The inscription reads: Carol Neuman de Vegvar (1999) observes that other depictions of Romulus and Remus are found in East Anglian art and coinage (for example the very early Undley bracteate). K. Malone, The Franks Casket and the Date of Widsith, in A.H. Orrick (ed. Excited and imaginative scholars have put forward numbers of suggestions but none convinces. , The inscription refers specifically to the scene on the left end of the casket's right side. See more ideas about casket, post mortem photography, post mortem. It may have been intended to hold a book, perhaps a psalter, and intended to be presented to a "secular, probably royal, recipient", The front panel, which originally had a lock fitted, depicts elements from the Germanic legend of Wayland the Smith in the left-hand scene, and the Adoration of the Magi on the right. sitæþ on hærmberge | agl? A panel from the Franks casket in the British Museum with Egil defending his home with a bow. However, Wilhelm Krause (1959) instead separates herh (temple) and os (divinity). Culture: English 2010-01-25. The horse may be Sleipnir, Woden's famous stallion.". In 1866, Sophus Bugge "followed up his explanation of the Weland picture on the front of the casket with the suggestion that the bowman on the top piece is Egil, Weland's brother, and thinks that the 'carving tells a story about him of which we know nothing. Webster (2012a:96-97). herhos(?) The Franks casket is a carved Anglo-Saxon whale-bone artifact measuring 12.9 x 22.9 x 19.1 cm. On the front it marks the third of the Magi, who brings myrrh. Howlett interprets the warrior at left as Boe, and “one infers that the mound is depicted twice and that the stallion mourning in the centre of the panel is identical with the figure seated at the left end, where he retains his horse’s head and hooves.”, Ute Schwab (2008), following Heiner Eichner (1991), interprets the left and central scenes on the right panel as relating to the Welsh legend of Rhiannon. All these numbers are multiples of 24 = 3 x 8, the magical number of runes in the elder futhark, the early continental runic alphabet preserved within the extended Anglo-Saxon futhorc. Wadstein, Elis (1900), "The Clermont Runic Casket,". This scene was first explained by Sophus Bugge, in Stephens (1866-1901, Vol. What do you see in a 120-pound weakling like Frank Sinatra, anyway?” “Well, there’s only 10 pounds of Frank but there’s 110 pounds of cock.” Inb4 op is a phaggot Two isolated words stand in the lower corners.. ", This is a glossary of the Old English words on the casket, excluding personal names. Becker (2000, unpaginated section "H-panel (Right Side) - The Picture"). " Webster (2012b:46-8) notes that the two-headed beast both above and below the figure in the room behind the archer also appears beneath the feet of Christ as King David in an illustration from an 8th-century Northumbrian manuscript of Cassiodorus, Commentary on the Psalms. Quick Facts Name Frank Lucas Birth Date September 9, 1930 Death Date May 30, 2019 Place of Birth La Grange, North Carolina Place of Death Cedar Grove, New Jersey  According to Saxo, Balder's rival Hother meets three women in a dank wood late at night, who provide him with a belt and girdle that will enable him to defeat Balder. Simmons separates the other scenes on the right side and interprets them as depictions of the Nativity and the Passion.. The left panel shows the legend of Romulus and Remus suckled by the wolf as a symbol of the mother Church offering succor. Peeters, Leopold, "The Franks Casket: A Judeo-Christian Interpretation. The scene is a reference to the apocryphon Decensus ad Inferos, a popular medieval text translated into Anglo-Saxon. ... John F. Kennedy Jr. (who turned three on this day) salutes as the casket of his father as it's carried out of St. Matthew's Cathedral in Washington, D.C. while Jacqueline Kennedy and Robert Kennedy stand behind the boy. Dimensions: 13 × 23 × 19 cm Page writes, "What the scenes represent I do not know. I, p. lxix), as cited by Napier (1901, p. 368). The casket is densely decorated with knife-cut narrative scenes in flat two-dimensional low-relief and with inscriptions mostly in Anglo-Saxon runes. " Leopold Peeters (1996:44) proposes that the lid depicts the defeat of Agila, the Arian Visigothic ruler of Hispania and Septimania, by Roman Catholic forces in 554 A.D. This lidded Anglo-Saxon casket is made of whale bone; it is carved on the sides and top in relief with scenes from Roman, Jewish, Christian and Germanic traditions. According to Simmons, the 'idol' (herh) is Satan in the form of an ass, being tortured by a personified Hell in helmet. Other authors see a Biblical or Christian message in the lid: Marijane Osborn finds that several details in Psalm 90, "especially as it appears in its Old English translation, ... may be aligned with details in the picture on the lid of the casket: the soul shielded in verse 5 and safely sheltered in the ... sanctuary in verse 9, the spiritual battle for the soul throughout, the flying missiles in verse 6 and an angelic defender in verse 11. English. Schneider (1959) similarly identified the right panel with Saxo’s version of the death of Balder. Mathieu before ca. grorn þǣr hē on grēot geswam. , The casket is 22.9 cm long, 19 cm wide and 10.9 cm high – 9 × 7 1⁄2 by 5 1⁄8 inches, and can be dated from the language of its inscriptions and other features to the first half of the 8th century AD. In 1291, the lord of Mercoeur "made homage and swore loyalty to St. Julian, to the chapter and church of Brioude, and to the aforesaid dean, hand on the holy Gospels, and devoutly kissing a box of ivory filled with relics, as is the barons' custom." Note the arrows stuck in the shield. Above the mound we see a chalice and right of the mound a woman with a staff in hand. It is now incomplete; the lid lacks its framing inscription, and the right side-panel, separated from it in the early nineteenth century, is in the Museo Nazionale del Bargello in Florence. The inscriptions on the Franks Casket are alliterative verse, and so give particular emphasis to one or more runes on each side. Josef Strzygowski (quoted by Viëtor 1904) proposed instead that the lid represents a scene pertaining to the fall of Troy, but did not elaborate. 4 of 40. With his other hand Wayland offers the goblet, containing drugged beer, to Beaduhild, Niðhad's daughter, whom he then rapes when she is unconscious. The Franks Casket offers an interesting subject, but I'm not competent to enrich the material. It also appears on the lid, where according to Becker, Valhalla is depicted. Bellows, Oxford Univ. However, "whereas [Becker] sees this as indicating pagan magic, I see it as complementing such magic, as another example of the Franks Casket artist adapting his pagan materials to a Christian evangelical purpose in the mode of interpretatio romana. The casket is densely decorated with knife-cut narrative scenes in flat two-dimensional low-relief and with inscriptions mostly in Anglo-Saxon runes. Related Interest . Some of the details Peeters cites are specific to the Old English poem based on Daniel. The associated text reads 'ᚻᛖᚱᚠᛖᚷᛏᚪᚦ | +ᛏᛁᛏᚢᛋᛖᚾᛞᚷᛁᚢᚦᛖᚪᛋᚢ' (in Latin transliteration 'herfegtaþ | +titusendgiuþeasu', and if normalised to Late West Saxon 'Hēr feohtaþ Tītus and Iūdēas'): 'Here Titus and the Jews fight'. Three of the vowels are represented consistently by three invented symbols. In the upper right quadrant, the Jewish population flee, casting glances backwards. ), M. Osborn, "The Grammar of the Inscription on the Franks Casket, right Side,", P. W. Souers, "The Top of the Franks Casket,", P. W. Souers, "The Franks Casket: Left Side,", P. W. Souers, "The Magi on the Franks Casket,", P. W. Souers, "The Wayland Scene on the Franks Casket,", K. Spiess, "Das angelsächsische Runenkästchen (die Seite mit der Hos-Inschrift)," in, A. Wolf, "Franks Casket in literarhistorischer Sicht,", This page was last edited on 17 November 2020, at 23:37. The stallion to the left of the mound is Balder’s father Woden.” In Saxo's story, Woden then begets a second son, Boe (Bous or Váli), to avenge Balder's death. In the lower right quadrant, the slaves/hostages are led away, with the text, in the bottom right corner of the panel, reading 'ᚷᛁᛋᛚ' (if normalised to Late West Saxon: 'gīsl'): 'hostages'. Date Created: 700/750. Amy Vandersall (1975) confirms Schneider's reading of Ægili as relating to Achilles, but would instead have the lid depict the Trojan attack on the Greek camp, with the Greek bowman Teucer as the archer and the person behind the archer (interpreted as a woman by most other authors) as Achilles in his tent. Howlett (1997: 283) concurs with Becker and Osborn that "The carver counted his characters. " Reading one rune, transcribed by Page and others as r but which is different from the usual r-rune, as a rune for u, Thomas A. Bredehoft has suggested the alternative reading. drigiþ | swa hiri ertae gisgraf særden sorgæ | and sefa tornæ, This word is a mystery, but often emended to, trouble, distress, oppression, misery, grief, doom, judgment, ordeal, sentence; court, tribunal, assembly, experience, suffer, endure, sustain, tolerate, mass of water, flood, wave; flow (of tide as opposed to ebb), tide, flux, current, stream, on, upon, on to, up to, among; in, into, within, bodily pain, sickness; wound, sore, raw place; suffering, sorrow, affliction, sorrow, pain, grief, trouble, care, distress, anxiety, so as, consequently, just as, so far as, in such wise, in this or that way, thus, so that, provided that, anger, indignation; grief, misery, suffering, pain, d'Ardenne, Simonne R.T.O., "Does the right side of the Franks Casket represent the burial of Sigurd? Osborn, Marijane. Relics & Reliquaries | ", Clark, Eleanor Grace, "The Right Side of the Franks Casket,". Each Anglo-Saxon runic letter had an acrophonic Old English name, which gave the rune itself the connotations of the name, as described in the Old English rune poem. According to Gabriele Cocco (2009), the lid most likely portrays the story of Elisha and Joas from 2 Kings 13:17, in which the prophet Elisha directs King Joas to shoot an arrow out an open window to symbolise his struggle against the Syrians: "Hence, the Ægili-bowman is King Joas and the figure under the arch is Elisha. The casket is densely decorated with knife-cut narrative scenes in flat two-dimensional low-relief and with inscriptions mostly in Anglo-Saxon runes. ", The rear panel depicts the Taking of Jerusalem by Titus in the First Jewish-Roman War. Generally reckoned to be of Northumbrian origin, it is of unique importance for the insight it gives into early Anglo-Saxon artand culture. At left an animal figure sits on a small rounded mound, confronted by an armed and helmeted warrior. The Franks Casket. For date see note to lead. drigiÞ swa hirÆ ertae gisgraf sarden sorga and sefa torna. " Several of these theories are outlined below. 4 and 5: The wild creature at the left represents Nebuchadnezzar after he “was driven away from people and given the mind of an animal; he lived with the wild asses and ate grass like cattle.” The figure facing him is then the “watchful one” who decreed Nebuchadnezzar's fate in a dream (4.13-31), and the quadruped in the centre represents one of the wild asses with whom he lived. However, a definitive translation of the lines has met with difficulty, partly because the runes are run together without separators between words, and partly because two letters are broken or missing. The Franks Casket (or the Auzon Runic Casket) is a small Anglo-Saxon whalebone chest from the eighth century, now in the British Museum.The casket is densely decorated with knife-cut narrative scenes in flat two-dimensional low-relief and with inscriptions mostly in Anglo-Saxon runes. Both identifying the images and interpreting the runic inscriptions has generated a considerable amount of scholarship.. '" In Norse mythology, Egil is named as a brother of Weyland (Weland), who is shown on the front panel of the casket. , In a sharp contrast, the right-hand scene shows one of the most common Christian subjects depicted in the art of the period; however here "the birth of a hero also makes good sin and suffering". It served as a sewing box until the silver hinges and fittings joining the panels were traded for a silver ring. This event was seen to symbolize the triumph of Christianity over Judaism, and the similar siege from the unknown Egil story probably echoes this theme. The Franks Casket (or the Auzon Casket) is a small Anglo-Saxon whale's bone (not "whalebone" in the sense of baleen) chest from the early 8th century, now in the British Museum. The associated text, which is in Latin and partly uses Latin letters and partly runes, reads 'hicfugianthierusalim | ᚪᚠᛁᛏᚪᛏᚩᚱᛖᛋ' (in normalised Classical Latin: 'hic fugiant Hierusalim habitatores'): 'Here the inhabitants flee from Jerusalem'. The casket is densely decorated with knife-cut narrative scenes in flat two-dimensional low-relief and with inscriptions mostly in Anglo-Saxon runes. Date: early 8th century H. Marquardt, Die Runeninschriften der Britischen Inseln (Bibliographie der Runeninschriften nach Fundorten, Bd. Without the support of these the casket fell apart. Karl Schneider (1959) identifies the word Ægili on the lid as an Anglo-Saxon form of the name of the Greek hero Achilles.  She suggests that because of the similarity of the story of Romulus and Remus to that of Hengist and Horsa, the brothers who were said to have founded England, "the legend of a pair of outcast or traveller brothers who led a people and contributed to the formation of a kingdom was probably not unfamiliar in the 8th-century Anglo-Saxon milieu of the Franks Casket and could stand as a reference to destined rulership. The British Museum display includes a cast of it. It has been linked to the cult of St. Julian at Brioude, where it may have served as a reliquary. Leslie Webster has suggested that there may have been relief panels in silver making up the missing areas. The Franks Casket (or the Auzon Casket) is a small Anglo-Saxon whale's bone (not baleen) chest from the early 8th century, now in the British Museum. At the centre of the panel is a depiction of a building, probably representing the Temple of Jerusalem. , The chest is clearly modelled on Late Antique ivory caskets such as the Brescia Casket; the Veroli Casket in the V&A Museum is a Byzantine interpretation of the style, in revived classical style, from about 1000. Franks Casket right panel original on display in Bargello Museum.jpg 2,272 × 1,704; 1.12 MB Franks Casket right panel.jpg 1,600 × 1,200; 322 KB Franks Casket … The Franks Casket, named after its donator to the British Museum, A.W.  It was then in the possession of a family in Auzon, a village in Haute Loire. ", 1996, Schneider, Karl, "Zu den Inschriften und Bildern des Franks Casket und einer ae. The number of these disciples is mentioned in scripture only in Luke 10, and there are two versions of this text; whereas the Protestant Bible says that Christ appointed a further seventy disciples, the Vulgate version known to the Anglo-Saxons specifies seventy-two. David Howlett (1997) identifies the illustrations on the right panel with the story of the death of Balder, as told by the late 12th-century Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus in his Gesta Danorum. The Franks Casket thus remains one of the oldest and greatest outstanding puzzles in Anglo-Saxon studies, indeed of medieval studies, and as it lies at the intersection of history, linguistics, poetry and art, there are many who should like to see it "deciphered." The lid as it now survives is incomplete. (1990). In, Vandersall, Amy L., "The Date and Provenance of the Franks Casket,". Whale's bone); back: her fegtaÞ titus end giuÞeasu hic fugiant hierusalim afitatores (Here Titus and a Jew fight: here its inhabitants flee from Jerusalem); left: romwalus ond reumwalus twoegen gibroÞÆr afoeddÆ hiÆ wylif in romÆcÆstri oÞlÆ unneg (Romulus and Remus, two brothers. The lid depicts a siege from an unidentified episode in the life of the Germanic hero Egil, while the back shows the capture of Jerusalem by the Romans in AD 70. On the left, a warrior "has met his fate in guise of a frightening monster... As the outcome, the warrior rests in his grave shown in the middle section. ", http://www.gutenberg.org/files/31543/31543-0.txt, "The Bowman Who Takes the Lid off the Franks Casket. Linguistically, the segment os- represents the verbal prefix oþ- assimilated to the following sibilant, while in the b-verse of the second line er "before" is an independent word before a three-member verbal compound, tae-gi-sgraf. Language. The terror-king became sad where he swam on the shingle. — Thorny Problem of the Franks Casket Reveals Another Riddle, Colossal quartzite statue of Amenhotep III, Amun in the form of a ram protecting King Taharqa, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Franks_Casket&oldid=989259883, Medieval European objects in the British Museum, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2013, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, ᚠᛁᛋᚳ.ᚠᛚᚩᛞᚢ.ᚪᚻᚩᚠᚩᚾᚠᛖᚱᚷ | ᛖᚾᛒᛖᚱᛁᚷ | ᚹᚪᚱᚦᚷᚪ:ᛋᚱᛁᚳᚷᚱᚩᚱᚾᚦᚫᚱᚻᛖᚩᚾᚷᚱᛖᚢᛏᚷᛁᛋᚹᚩᛗ | ᚻᚱᚩᚾᚫᛋᛒᚪᚾ, fisc.flodu.ahofonferg | enberig | warþga:sricgrornþærheongreutgiswom | hronæsban, The flood cast up the fish on the mountain-cliff, ᚱᚩᛗᚹᚪᛚᚢᛋᚪᚾᛞᚱᛖᚢᛗᚹᚪᛚᚢᛋᛏᚹᛟᚷᛖᚾ | ᚷᛁᛒᚱᚩᚦᚫᚱ | ᚪᚠᛟᛞᛞᚫᚻᛁᚫᚹᚣᛚᛁᚠᛁᚾᚱᚩᛗᚫᚳᚫᛋᛏᚱᛁ: | ᚩᚦᚳᚫᚢᚾᚾᛖᚷ, romwalusandreumwalus twœgen | gibroðær | afœddæhiæ wylifinromæcæstri: | oþlæunneg. Napier (1901, p. 366), quoting Bugge in Stephens (1866-1901, vol. The inscriptions "display a deliberate linguistic and alphabetic virtuosity; though they are mostly written in Old English and in runes, they shift into Latin and the Roman alphabet; then back into runes while still writing Latin". See more ideas about anne frank, anne, franks. Webster (1991); Webster (2012a:92); Webster (2012b:30-33). View images from this item (6) Information. “Ava Gardner! Files. “The woman to the right of the mound is Hel, Saxo’s Proserpina, prophesying Balder’s death and condemning Woden to sorrow and humiliation. The first member tae- is a rare form of the particle-prefix to-. Both identifying the images and interpreting the ru… This is the back panel of the Franks/Auzon Casket. In one version of the story of the Harrowing of Hell, a personified Hell blames Satan for having brought about the Crucifixion, which has allowed Christ to descend to Hell's kingdom and free the imprisoned souls. In the upper left quadrant, the Romans, led by Titus in a helm with a sword, attack the central building. His wife Ava Gardner said this about his cock. Webster (1991), from British Museum collection database. The prophet would then be wearing a hood, typical of Semitic populations, and holding a staff. “In this box our warrior hoarded his treasure, golden rings and bands and bracelets, jewellery he had received from his lord, … which he passed to his own retainers… This is feohgift, a gift not only for the keep of this or that follower, but also to honour him in front of his comrade-in-arms in the hall.” The Romulus and Remus inscription alliterates on the R-rune ᚱ rad (journey or ride), evoking both how far from home the twins had journeyed and the owner's call to arms. The Franks Casket (or the Auzon Casket) is a small Anglo-Saxon whale’s bone chest from the early 8th century, now in the British Museum. Ch. Wood, Ian N., "Ripon, Francia and the Franks Casket in the Early Middle Ages", Richard Abels, “What Has Weland to Do with Christ? Alfred Becker (1973, 2002), following Krause, interprets herh as a sacred grove, the site where in pagan days the Æsir were worshipped, and os as a goddess or valkyrie. Pre-Columbian Maize in India. The first considerable publication, by George Stephens, Vandersall summarises the previous scholarship as at 1972 in setting the casket into an art-historical, rather than linguistic context. The Vinland Map... and a little Art History Frontal David. To the right of the scene Wayland (or his brother) catches birds; he then makes wings from their feathers, with which he is able to escape. ", Although the Sigurd-Grani thesis remains the most widely accepted interpretation of the right panel, Arthur Napier remarked already in 1901, "I remain entirely unconvinced by the reasons [Wadstein] puts forward, and believe that the true explanation of the picture has still to be found.". Mrs. Parsons (1999, 98-100) has an important discussion on the runes used in the Franks Casket. The Franks Casket was probably intended for use in a royal context. The missing right end panel was later found in a drawer by the family in Auzon and sold to the Bargello Museum, Florence, where it was identified as part of the casket in 1890. Krause and Becker call attention to the significance of the two trefoil marks or valknutr between the stallion's legs, which denote the realm of death and can be found in similar position on picture stones from Gotland, Sweden like the Tängelgårda stone and the Stora Hammars stones. The earliest extant record of the Wayland legend is the representation in carved ivory on a casket of Northumbrian workmanship of a date not later than the beginning of the 8th century. May 6, 2014 - Explore mitchell griggs's board "Anne frank family photos" on Pinterest. The five surviving decorated panels are accompanied by carved texts in Old English and Latin. Saints & Martyrs | Napier (p. 364) reports that Dr. Söderberg of Lund had anticipated Wadstein's proposal already in the. The Franks Casket (or the Auzon Casket) is a small Anglo-Saxon whale's bone (not "whalebone" in the sense of baleen) chest from the early 8th century, now in the British Museum. Eleanor Clark (1930) added, "Indeed, no one seeing the figure of the horse bending over the tomb of a man could fail to recall the words of the Guthrunarkvitha (II,5): While Clark admits that this is an "extremely obscure legend," she assumes that the scene must be based on a Germanic legend, and can find no other instance in the entire Norse mythology of a horse weeping over a dead body.  She concludes that the small, legless person inside the central mound must be Sigurd himself, with his legs gnawed off by the wolves mentioned in Guthrun's story.  Title: The Franks Casket. J. Huston McCulloch As of July 18, 2019, I have taken down the text of this page on the Franks Casket, in anticipation of submitting a major revision with a similar title to an academic journal. Includes the texts of the Old English verse inscriptions on the casket and translations into modern English. , Runological and numerological considerations. British Museum Collections Database webpage, accessed Jan. 26, 2013; Webster (2012), p. 92. This panel depicts the capture of the city of Jerusalem in 70 CE by the Roman general (later Emperor) Titus. The labels on the two lower corners read "dom" (which means judgment) and "gisl" (meaning hostage). The casket is densely decorated with knife-cut narrative scenes in flat two-dimensional low- relief and with inscriptions mostly in Anglo-Saxon runes . As an extra challenge for the reader, on the right panel only, the vowels are encrypted with a simple substitution cipher.  Some are written upside down or back to front. Franks Casket. ... it is generally accepted that the scenes, drawn from contrasting traditions, were carefully chosen to counterpoint one another in the creation of an overarching set of Christian messages. Description. Another Anglo-Saxon bone plaque, existing only in a fragment at the.