The spring of AD 115 saw Trajan back with the army in Mesopotamia, and again on the advance. In Cappadocia, just to the south of Armenia, the province’s governor Marcus Junius sent word to his two legions, the 12th Fulminata at Melitene and the 16th Flavia at Satala, to be ready to march in the spring. Traditionally, the emperors of Rome had reserved the right to choose the kings of Armenia. There was a brief battle on the eastern side of the river, but Trajan had overwhelming numbers—his army would have comprised 60,000–70,000 fighting men at the commencement of the offensive the previous year. In the confusion, Parthia was overrun … After defeating the Dacians once more, he made their lands a Roman province in 106 AD. Coming off the flat steppe region of central Asia, more than one ancient author mentions Parthian cavalry as essential to their military machine. Trajan's Parthian War. 3 Julian, it is true, set out from Antioch on his ill- fated Persian campaign on 5 March a.d. 363, but he was heading south towards warmer, drier climes, not north across the Taurus mountains. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Against Parthia, Trajan’s justification for war was that in 110 AD, the Parthian King removed the Roman-appointed king of Armenia and installed Axidares, his own nominee, the throne. Learn how your comment data is processed. In 245, when the Seleucids were involved in the Laodicean War in the West, a satrap named Andragoras revolted from the young Seleucid king Seleucus II Callinicus, who had just succeeded to the throne. After triumphing in the Seleucid–Parthian wars and annexing large amounts of Seleucid Empire the Parthians began to look west for territory to expand into. It seems that Trajan and the bulk of his army spent the winter of AD 115–116 there at Ctesiphon, with Trajan occupying the palace of the kings of Parthia. In 100AD, Trajan lowered the fineness to 92.75%. The chronology of his campaigns is uncertain. The relative tranquility came to an end, however, in A.D. 113, when Rome changed course, and Emperor Trajan mounted a massive invasion of Parthian territory. Kitos War raged in Jerusalem, provoked by Roman procurator Lucius Quietus … At Edessa, Trajan received various eastern potentates before pushing south through the pass and occupying part of northern Mesopotamia. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. The Discourses of Epictetus. And it was here, on the plain in the vicinity of the ancient cities of Nineveh, Arbela and Gaugamela, that the Macedonian army had defeated King Darius’ Persian army in 331 BC. It seems that Trajan added Hadrian to his party at the urging of his wife Plotina, who was close to Hadrian, giving him the post of governor of Syria, for Dio wrote that Hadrian “had been assigned to Syria for the Parthian War.” [Dio, lxix, 1], After Trajan’s fleets arrived at Laodicea, he and the imperial party spent the winter at Antioch. Genre/Form: History: Additional Physical Format: Online version: Lepper, F.A. The reasons for Trajan’s invasion of Parthia have been debated since ancient times. Mithridates II conducted unsuccessful negotiations with Sullafor a Roman… His successor, Hadrian, withdrew from Parthia and Mesopotamia, preferring to maintain the integrity of a slightly smaller, albeit more secure Empire.eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'historyhit_com-box-4','ezslot_11',160,'0','0'])); Despite his war-like nature, history has generally remembered Trajan in a very positive light, marking him as one of the so-called ‘5 Good Emperors’. Under the Emperor Trajan (ruled 98 – 117 AD), the Roman Empire expanded significantly, reaching its greatest territorial extent. Earlier campaigns against the Dacians as well as against Germanic tribes across the Danube by Domitian had met with some success, but the situation had been largely left unsettled. One of the legions sent east for Trajan’s new campaign was the 1st Adiutrix. Previously we have made an animated historical documentary on the battle of Nisibis http://bit.ly/30vmmwO between the Roman and the Parthian empires. OCLC 2898605 Also available online. Has part. trajan’s parthian war ad 113–116 part ii Posted on December 10, 2018 by MSW In the spring of AD 116, Trajan and part of his army sailed down the Tigris in his fleet of boats, almost coming to grief when, on reaching a point in the river’s lower reaches where the current met the incoming tide, a storm broke over the vessels. Parthian enterprise in the West began in the time of Mithridates I; during his reign, the Arsacids succeeded in extending their rule into Armenia and Mesopotamia. This is the only book I'm aware of focused on Trajan's Parthian War. Each day, he personally decided the marching order. Trajan no longer had the services of tough old Sura, the third of his successful Dacian War generals, who had died a natural death in around AD 108. Soon, Trajan’s legions had brought all of Armenia under Roman control. [Dio, LXVIII, 21] Once across the river, the Roman army quickly gained possession of the kingdom of Adiabene. He did exactly this in 114, killing the king of Armenia — a relative of the Parthian King Osroes I — in the processeval(ez_write_tag([[728,90],'historyhit_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_12',143,'0','0'])); Trajan also took northern Mesopotamia, annexing it as well, before capturing and sacking the Parthian capital Ctesiphon and then advancing all the way to the Persian Gulf. But Trajan did no such thing. Like so many Roman generals including Julius Caesar, Trajan had a desire to emulate the deeds of Alexander the Great. Though a popular ruler, as much for his public building and social welfare programs in Rome as for his military achievements, Trajan’s newly acquired territories did not remain Roman for long. ( Log Out / As the army tramped along the Roman highways at a steady 18 miles a day, Trajan neither rode nor was carried in a litter; he marched on foot at the head of his troops, bareheaded. But Trajan had another motive. After triumphing in the Seleucid–Parthian wars and annexing large amounts of Seleucid Empire the Parthians began to look west for territory to expand into. Word soon reached the Parthian king that Trajan was heading to the East with an army, and immediately he saw himself as the Roman emperor’s target. ( Log Out / [Starr, viii]. In 113, Trajan embarked on his last campaign, provoked by Parthia's decision to put an unacceptable king on the throne of Armenia, a kingdom over which the two great empires had shared hegemony since the time of Nero some fifty years earlier. London: Oxford University Press, 1948. Trajan’s second major war was against the Parthians, Rome’s traditional enemy in the east. Traditionally, the emperors of Rome had reserved the right to choose the kings of Armenia. With the end of the year approaching, Trajan left the army camped in Parthian territory and returned to Syria to winter at Antioch. He organized much of the newly conquered territory into the new Roman province of Mesopotamia, but almost immediately faced wide-ranging revolts among the local peoples. [Dio, LXVIII, 26, 28] This was to allow him to follow the Tigris all the way to the Persian Gulf, or the Erythreaean Sea as the Romans called it. The Parthian king Osroes’ deposing a pro-Roman king in Armenia and installing a Parthian puppet had provoked the emperor. Southeastern Anatolia Region, Turkey. With Nero’s death, the Parthian plan died too. TRAJAN'S PARTHIAN WAR and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at AbeBooks.com. Parthian war of Caracalla. Strabo says that their horses were superior in "fleetness" (3.5.15). The Syrian capital was badly damaged, and “multitudes” killed. [Ibid.] The emperor's Parthian War, which extended the empire to its largest size yet, has never been easy to reconstruct due to the paucity of written sources. To Trajan, this was a special moment. It's noteworthy, however that Trajan, already in Syria early in 113, consistently refused to accept … As the cost of the Dacian war escalated, he again reduced the fineness to in 103AD to 91.5% This would decline further reaching 90% in 112AD. [Starr, Add. [Ibid.]. Trajan was presented with an excuse to go to war with the Parthians. He himself set off to sail to Syria via Greece accompanied by his wife, the empress Plotina, and elements of the Praetorian Guard and Singularian Horse. Founded in AD 68, it would have undergone a new enlistment over the winter of AD 108–109, so by AD 113 its numbers were up and its new recruits were settled and trained. A new online only channel for history lovers, Roman Navy in Britain: The Classis Britannica with Simon Elliott, Tony Robinson’s Romans: The Rise of Julius Caesar. Trajan was presented with an excuse to go to war with the Parthians. A new series of wars began in the 2nd century, during which the Romans consistently held the upper hand over Parthia. The Dacian King Decebalus, who had remained in power as a thorn in the proverbial Roman side, had spent the bett… THE WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION – FRANCE. The emperor, at this high point hailed by the Senate as " Parthicus ", moved on, receiving the submission of the king of Characene at … Trajan was the first leader in several decades to conquer new territories and establish new Roman provinces.eval(ez_write_tag([[728,90],'historyhit_com-box-3','ezslot_14',142,'0','0'])); Trajan’s first principal wars were fought against the Dacians, who inhabited a large territory encompassing much of Central Europe, ranging from the River Danube in the south to Black Sea in the East and encompassing the Carpathian Mountains. [Dio, lxviii, 23]. Before Trajan returned to Rome in AD 99 to assume his place as 'emperor', time spent scouting enemy dispositions and investigating the Danube fortifications assuredly inspired him to prepare for an offensive into Dacia. Trajan ordered his troops back to Syria and set out to return to Rome by boat, though he would never make it back. As he departed the army, he left orders for the legions to fell trees in the forests around Nisibis then use the wood to build collapsible boats for the new year’s campaign in Mesopotamia. The 1st Adiutrix marched west from Brigetio in Pannonia to the next legion base on the Danube, Carnuntum, and there its column was joined by the 15th Apollinaris Legion. In 113 AD, Trajan sailed from Rome to begin his campaign against Parthia. For discussion of Malalas' dates, see M. I. Henderson, Review of Lepper, F. A., ‘ Trajan's Parthian War ’, JRS xxxix (1949), 122 –4. In AD 66, Nero was marshaling his forces for an invasion of Parthia when the Jewish Revolt forced him to abort the plan and divert his legions to counter the revolt. Over the winter, Antioch and many cities of the region were hit by a severe earthquake. Instead, he sent the prince and the Parthian members of his entourage away under Roman cavalry escort, and told the Armenians in the party to stay right where they were, as they were now his subjects. Quietus had served Trajan so loyally and effectively throughout the Dacian Wars that the emperor had, over the past seven years, made him a praetor, consul and provincial governor. The six legions of the task force moved east through a landscape “destitute of trees.” A convoy of wagons had brought the newly constructed fleet of collapsible boats down from Nisibis, but as Trajan tried to send his troops across a river in his path—probably the Nighr—an opposition force that had assembled on the far bank made life difficult for the invaders by peppering them with missiles. Trajan’s other senior general, the trusted Lucius Appius Maximus, came out from Rome with him. [Dio, lxviii, 25] Among the casualties were foreign ambassadors waiting on the Roman emperor, and Marcus Vergilianus Pedo, who had just arrived in Syria after briefly serving as a consul in Rome and giving his name to the year. At an assembly in Ctesiphon, Trajan was hailed imperator by the legions. How Effective Were Nazi Sabotage and Espionage Missions in Britain? Fame, the reason provided by Cassius Dio, is most often put forth, but modern historians have also asserted that the war was actually started for economic reasons. Trajan wished to soundly defeat the Parthians and annex Armenia as a Roman territory. Trajan's Parthian War. TRAJAN'S PARTHIAN WAR AND THE FOURTH-CENTURY PERSPECTIVE* By C. S. LIGHTFOOT I. Dacia had defeated Roman armies under the reign of Emperor Domitan (81 – 96 AD) and Trajan wished to subdue what he still considered to be a threat. The Suomen Ilmavoimat (Finnish Air Force). Yet Trajan’s forces were stretched by these conflicts and a series of Jewish rebellions in Cyprus, Egypt, Libya and Mesopotamia. This important event is rather poorly recorded in the sources, though this was not initially the case. Battle of Carrhae. Once he had brought Dacia into the Roman Empire and had consolidated the Dacian conquest, he was able to turn his full focus to the East. [Ibid.] This was the first mention in Cassius Dio’s narrative of the campaign of organized resistance in the field. A sestertius issued by the Roman Senate in 116 to commemorate Trajan's Parthian campaign. Attempting to do one better than Trajan, Cassius the next year invaded Media, the heart of the Parthian Empire. In 113 AD Trajan turned his sights to Parthia (now north-eastern Iran), with which Rome had had previous conflicts, mainly over the control of Armenia. Who Were the Cross-Channel Aviation Pioneers? Roman–Parthian War of 195–198. This was the beginning of an "international role" for the Parthian empire, a phase that also entailed contacts with Rom… Made from marble, it stands 35 metres in height, including its pedestal, and features a viewing platform near the top. ( Log Out / For some days, Trajan lived in a tent in the Antioch chariot-racing stadium, the hippodrome, as aftershocks continued to shake the region. Of Italian stock himself, Trajan is frequently but misleadingly designated the first provincial emperor. Dacia covered modern-day Romania and Moldova as well as parts of Bulgaria, Serbia, Hungary, Poland and Ukraine. It turned out that Trajan’s invasion had taken place at an opportune time, for “the Parthian power had been destroyed by civil conflicts and was still at this time the subject of strife.” [Dio, LXVIII, 22] The Parthians were locked in a civil war. If Trajan's wars had, as the author in the previous sentence declares, for a time closed to Romans the silk route through Parthia (thus assisting a rapprochement between Romans and Kushans), Palmyra must have suffered. What if Eisenhower Had Driven On to Berlin? INTRODUCTION No contemporary account of Trajan's Parthian War survives, nor were any monuments set up to commemorate his exploits in the East in the same way that Trajan's Column in Rome and the trophy at Tropaeum Traiani (Adamclisi) do his Dacian Wars. With the victory over Parthia, Verus assumed the title of Parthicus. In the spring of AD 114, leaving his wife with Hadrian at Antioch, Trajan launched his eastern offensive; as governor of Syria, Hadrian had the task of ensuring that Trajan’s lines of supply were efficiently maintained. Further to the south, at Adenystrae, modern-day Irbil, 70 miles (112 kilometers) north of Kirkuk in today’s northern Iraq, there was a strong Parthian fort. ; and AE 1955, 225]. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. This important event is rather poorly recorded in the sources, though this was not initially the case. How Much – If Any – of the Romulus Legend Is True? Alexander had brought his army here to Adiabene. By the end of March, Trajan had reached Melitene and added the two Cappadocia-based legions to his column; from there, he swung east, crossing the Euphrates and entering Armenia. After the fall of the Achaemenid Empire, Parthia, northeastern Iran, was governed by the Seleucid kings: a Macedonian dynasty that ruled in the Asian territories of the former Persian Empire. When Trajan sent a legion centurion named Sentius ahead to give the Adenystrae garrison a chance to surrender, the Parthian commander, Mebarsapes, rejected the offer and imprisoned the centurion. From there, Trajan sent his latest dispatches to the Senate at Rome. The Destruction of Army Group Center, 1944. Lepper, F.A. With the main enemy defense weakened, Trajan was able to send his troops across the bridge of boats in force. Trajan's Parthian War. This forced the outnumbered enemy to divert detachments from their army to hurry up and down the bank in order to be in position to counter these crossings. Why Does the Battle of Thermopylae Matter 2,500 Years On? Outbreak of Trajan’s Parthian War In c.109 yet another civil war broke out in Parthia, with Shah Osroes I gaining control of the west of the empire and Vologases III the east. The 2nd Traiana Legion, raised by Trajan in AD 105 and sent to the East to support the annexation of Arabia Petraea, came up to Syria for the offensive from its base in Egypt. “The barbarians gave way,” said Dio. Marcus Ulpius Traianus was born on 18 September 53 in the Roman province of Hispania Baetica (in what is now Andalusia in modern Spain), a province that was thoroughly Romanized and called southern Hispania, in the city of Italica (now in municipal area of Santiponce, in the outskirts of Seville), where the Italianfamilies were paramount. But Trajan had another motive. The current king of Armenia, Exedares, had been crowned by the Parthian king, Osroes, and had sworn loyalty to Parthia. 12 Significant Ancient Greek and Roman Historians, The Rollright Stones: One of the Greatest Neolithic Sites in Britain, 8 Facts About the 1851 Great Exhibition and the Crystal Palace. At the same time, various Roman units dashed this way and that, up and down the western bank of the river, giving the impression that they were going to cross in boats at various points. What Animals Have Been Taken into the Ranks of the Household Cavalry. It was the first series of conflicts in what would be 682 years of Roman–Persian Wars. Trajan then crossed the narrow neck of land to the Tigris and encircled the Parthian winter capital of Ctesiphon, which capitulated after a short siege. By the time that Trajan reached Athens in Greece on his way east, Parthian envoys were awaiting him there. They traveled aboard ships of the Roman navy’s Misene Fleet from Misenum commanded by fleet prefect Quintus Marcius Turbo, who would later become prefect of the Praetorian Guard under Hadrian. Both legions then marched down to Ravenna in northeastern Italy to board warships of the Ravenna Fleet, which ferried them to Syria. Hadrian had a great liking for Greek customs, and by AD 112 he was archon, or governor, of Athens, and was no doubt in the city when Trajan arrived there in AD 113 on his way to Syria. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Battle of Ctesiphon. Already suffering from circulatory problems due to what he believed was poisoning, Trajan suffered a stroke and became partially paralysed. The facilities at Laodicea were apparently so overburdened by the influx of naval and military personnel that sailors and marines of the Misene Fleet were quartered at the long-deserted quarters of the 10th Fretensis Legion at nearby Cyrrhus. In preparation for them, in 105/106 one of his generals annexed the Nabataean kingdom, the part of Arabia extending east and south of Judaea. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! It seems that Trajan had also long harbored the desire to become the conqueror of Parthia. Barbarossa to ‘Berlog’ – Soviet Air Force, Rome Military mid-fourth century to the mid-third century BC, Rommel Recaptures Cyrenaica, January 1942, Russian Weapons, that are currently in service…, A Lesson of History: The Luftwaffe and Barbarossa. Why You Should Know About Margaret Cavendish. Roman–Parthian War of 58–63. For the first stage of the campaign, Trajan marched his army north to Melitene in Cappadocia. At the same time, the 3rd Cyrenaica at Bostra in Arabia Petraea prepared its weapons, ammunition and stores for a campaign the following year. Its Parthian defenders put up some resistance, but the legions soon captured it, and, apparently, also captured neighboring Seleucia. The current king of Armenia, Exedares, had been crowned by the Parthian king, Osroes, and had sworn loyalty to Parthia. He also ordered several of his European-based legions to transfer to Syria in preparation for the new campaign. It is likely that the troops who opposed Trajan at this river crossing comprised the small army of the kingdom of Adiabene, a Parthian ally in northern Mesopotamia. War against Parthia. [Starr, App., & Add.] In the Adenystrae dungeon, Sentius convinced other prisoners to help him. During the first Dacian War of 101 – 102 AD, Roman armies prevailed, forcing the Dacians, who were led by king Decebalus, to surrender. Main article: Trajan's Parthian campaign. Main article: Trajan's Parthian campaign. Trajan's Parthian campaign. That they were the fastest around meant their riders could chase down the enemy when in pursuit, or escap… The Roman–Parthian Wars (54 BC – 217 AD) were a series of conflicts between the Parthian Empire and the Roman Republic and Roman Empire. After suffering his final defeat to the Romans, Decebalus committed suicide. Trajan's Parthian War/Arrian's Parthika book. The Dacian wars have always come in for much attention due to the fame and attraction of Trajan's Column. Arrian (who also wrote one of our main sources for Alexander) wrote a long (17 book) history of the Parthians which culminated in Trajan's war, but this work exists only in fragments. The envoys offered Trajan gifts and, telling him that Osroes had removed Exedares from the Armenian throne, sought a peace agreement. by Codex Bodleianus (Public Domain) Like Quietus, Maximus had served Trajan well in Dacia. Luttvak, Edward N. The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire: From the First Century A.D. to the Third, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979, ISBN 0-8018-2158-4 History Hit brings you the stories that shaped the world through our award winning podcast network and an online history channel. As the Roman army continued its advance down the Euphrates, “quite free from molestation” from the enemy and apparently using the collapsible boats to transport its supplies, Trajan conceived the idea of building a canal between the Euphrates and the Tigris. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Chicago : Ares Publishers, 1993 (OCoLC)1035500309 When Decebalus broke the terms of submission in 105, Trajan would not again be content with surrender. In the usual Roman textbook fashion, there were several craft at the forefront of this growing bridge, equipped with towers and screens, and manned by archers and heavy infantry with javelins who rained missiles down on the enemy. Trajan was joined at Antioch by his lieutenants for the campaign. Trajan was the first Roman emperor to dare (after 167 years) to cross the Euphrates with a Roman army, and in the winter of 115-116 CE Rome conquered the capital of Parthia, Ctesiphon.